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ARTICLE IV.

SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

MANNER OF FORMING THE COMPANY.

216. THE whole company being assembled on its parade ground, or in the rendezvous, the first, or orderly sergeant, will command:

Fall in - COMPANY.

At this command the corporals and privates will form in one rank, faced to the right, and in the order of height from right to left, the tallest man on the right (now head of the company), the next tallest man immediately covering the first, and so on to the left or rear of the rank, in which position will be placed the shortest man. The other sergeants will take post in the rank of file-closers, two paces the right of the company, and assist the first sergeant in forming the company.
When the men have their places, the first sergeant will command:

FRONT.

The second sergeant, who is the left guide of the company, will now place himself on the left of the company, and the orderly sergeant will promptly command:

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. Left - FACE. 3. MARCH.

At the command left face, the whole company will face to the left, except the guide and man on the left, who stand fast.
At the command march, the whole of the men who have faced to left, will step off together; the second man, counting from the left, will place himself in the rear rank, behind the man next to the guide, and face to the front; the two following men will, in like manner, on closing up, form the next file, the third man in the front, and the fourth in the rear rank behind him, and all the other men will come successively to form files, two deep, to the right of those already formed.1

1.(When the company is in good discipline, the files may be formed in two ranks at once, each man having his proper number in the company depending upon his height, and being able to take his appropriate place without creating confusion.)

The officers will now take their posts as prescribed in No. 8; if the captain has to discharge the duties of instructor, the first lieutenant will take his place on the right of the front rank, the second lieutenant replacing the first behind the fourth section.
The instructor will then cause the files to be numbered, and for this purpose will command

In each rank - count TWOS.

At this command the men count in each rank from right to left, pronouncing in a loud and distinct voice, in the same tone, without hurry and without turning the head, one, two, according to the place each one occupies. He will also cause the company to be divided into platoons and sections, taking care that the first platoon is always composed of an even number of files.

To open ranks.

217. The company being at ordered arms, the ranks and file closers well aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause the ranks to be opened, he will direct the left guide to place himself on the left of the front rank, which being executed, he will command:

1. Company. 2. Shoulder - ARMS. 3. To the rear, open order.

At the last command, the covering sergeant (or orderly sergeant), and the left guide, will step off smartly to the rear, four paces of twenty-eight inches from the front rank, in order to mark the position for the rear rank. They will judge this distance by the eye without counting the steps.
The instructor will place himself at the same time on the right flank, in order to observe if these two non-commissioned officers are on a line parallel to the front rank; and, if necessary, to correct their positions, which being executed, he will command:

4. MARCH.

At this command the front rank will stand fast. The rear rank will step to the rear without counting the steps, and will place themselves on the alignment marked for this rank, each man stepping slightly behind the line, and then dressing forward as in the backward dress. The covering sergeant will dress the rear rank on the left guide placed to mark the left of this rank. The instructor seeing the rear rank aligned, will command:

5. FRONT.

At this command, the sergeant on the left of the rear rank will return to his place as a file-closer.

Alignments in open ranks.

218. The ranks being open, the instructor will, in the first exercises, align the ranks, man by man, the better to inculcate the principles. To effect this, he will cause two or four men on the right or left of each rank to march two or three paces forward, and, after having aligned them, command:

By file, right (or left) - DRESS.

At this, the men of each rank will move up successively on the alignment, each man being preceded by his neighbor in the same rank, towards the basis, by two paces, and having correctly aligned himself, will cast his eyes to the front.
219. Successive alignments having habituated the soldier to dress correctly, the instructor will cause the ranks to align themselves at once, forward and backward, sometimes in a direction parallel, and sometimes in one oblique to the original direction, giving, in each case, two or four men to serve as a basis of alignment to each rank. To effect which, he will command:

1. Right (or left) - DRESS. 2. FRONT;

or,

1. Right (or left) backward - DRESS. 2. FRONT.

In oblique alignments, in opened ranks, the men of the rear rank will not seek to cover their file leaders, as the sole object of the exercise is to teach them to align themselves correctly in their respective ranks, in the different directions.
In the several alignments, the captain will superintend the front rank, and the covering sergeant the rear rank. For this purpose they will place themselves on the side by which the ranks are dressed.
In oblique alignments, the men will conform the line of their shoulders to the new direction of their ranks, and will place themselves on the alignment as has been prescribed in the school of the soldier, according as the new direction shall be in front or rear of the original one.

To close ranks.

220. The instructor will command:

1. Close order. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the rear rank will close up in quick time, each man directing himself on his file leader.

Alignments in closed ranks.

221. The ranks being closed, the instructor will cause to be executed parallel and oblique alignments by the right and left, forward and backward, observing to place always two or four files as a basis of alignment. He will give the same commands prescribed for opened ranks.
In alignments in closed ranks, the captain will superintend the front rank, and the covering sergeant the rear rank. They will habituate themselves to judge the alignment by the lines of the eyes and shoulders, in casting a glance of the eye along the front and rear of the ranks.
The moment the captain perceives the greater number of the front rank aligned, he will command FRONT, and rectify afterwards, if necessary, the alignment of the other men by ordering this or thatfile forwardor back, designating each by its number. The rear rank will conform to the alignment of the front rank, superintended by the covering sergeant.
The ranks being steady, the instructor will place himself on the flank to verify their alignment. He will also see that each rear rank man covers accurately his file leader.
In all alignments, the file-closers will preserve the distance of two paces from the rear rank.
The alignments being ended the instructor will exercise the company at the manual, and finish with stacking arms as follows:

To Stack Arms.

222. The men being at order arms, the instructor will command:

Stack - ARMS.

At this command, the front rank man of every even numbered file will pass his piece before him, seizing it with the left hand above he middle band, and place the butt behind and near the right foot of the man next on the left, the barrel turned to the front. At the same time the front rank man of every odd numbered file will pass his piece before him, seizing it with the left hand below the middle band, and hand it to the man next on the left; the latter will receive it with the right hand two inches above the middle band, throw the butt about thirty-two inches to the front, opposite to his right shoulder, incline the muzzle towards him, and lock the shanks of he two bayonets; the lock of this second piece towards the right, and its shank above that of the first piece. The rear rank man of every even file will project his bayonet forward, and introduce it (using both hands) between and under the shanks of the two other bayonets. He will then abandon the piece to his file leader, who will receive it with the right hand under the middle band, bring the butt to the front, holding up his own piece and the stack with the left hand, and place the butt of this third piece between the feet of the man next on the right, the S plate to the rear. The stack thus formed, the rear rank man of every odd file will pass his piece into his left hand, the barrel turned to the front, and, sloping the bayonet forward, rest it on the stack.
223. If the company be armed with rifles, or any piece without the bayonet, arms will be stacked by the same commands, and in the following manner: At the command stack arms, the front rank man of every even numbered file will pass his piece before him, seizing it with the left hand near the upper band; will place the butt a little in advance of his left toe, the barrel turned towards the body, and draw the rammer slightly from its place; the front rank man of every odd numbered file will also draw the rammer slightly, and pass his piece to the man next on his left, who will seize it with the right hand near the upper band, and place the butt a little in advance of the right toe of the man next on his right, the barrel turned to the front; he will then cross the rammers of the two pieces, the rammer of the piece of the odd numbered man being inside; the rear rank man of every even file will also draw his rammer, lean his piece forward, the lock-plate downwards, advance the right foot about six inches, and insert the rammer between the rammer and barrel of the piece of his front rank man; with his left hand he will place the butt of his piece on the ground, thirty-two inches in rear of, and perpendicular to, the front rank, bringing back his right foot by the side of the left; the front rank man of every even file will at the same time lean the stack to the rear, quit it with his right hand, and force all the rammers down. The stack being thus formed, the rear rank man of every odd file will pass his piece into his left hand, the barrel to the front, and inclining it forward, will rest it on the stack.
224. The men of both ranks having taken the position of the soldier without arms, the instructor will command:

1. Break ranks. 2. MARCH.

To Resume Arms.

Both ranks being re-formed in rear of their stacks, the instructor will command:

Take - ARMS.

At this command, the rear rank man of every odd numbered file will withdraw his piece from the stack; the front rank man of every even file will seize his own piece with the left hand, and that of the man on his right with his right hand, both above the lower band; the rear rank man of the even file will seize his piece with the right hand below the lower band; these two men will raise up the stock to loosen the rammers or bayonets; the front rank man of every odd file will facilitate the disengagement of the rammers, if necessary, by drawing them out slightly with the left hand, and will receive his piece from the hand of the man next on his left; the four men will retake the position of the soldier at order arms.

The firings.

To fire by company.

225. The instructor, wishing to cause the fire by company to be executed, will command:

1. Fire by company. 2. Commence firing.

At the first command, the captain will promptly place himself opposite the centre of his company, and four paces in rear of the line of file-closers: the covering sergeant will retire to that line, and place himself opposite to his interval. This rule is general, for both the captain and covering sergeant, in all the different firings.
At the second command, the captain will add:

1. Company. 2. READY. 3. AIM. 4. FIRE. 5. LOAD.

At the command load the men will load their pieces, and then take the position of ready, as prescribed in the school of the soldier.
The captain will immediately recommence the firing, by the commands:

1. Company. 2. AIM. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD.

The firing will be thus continued until the signal to cease firing is sounded.
The captain will sometimes cause aim to be taken to the right or left, simply observing to pronounce right (or left) oblique, before the command aim.

The fire by file.

226. The instructor wishing to cause the fire by file to be executed, will command:

1. Fire by file. 2. Company. 8. READY. 4. Commence firing.

The third and fourth commands will be executed as prescribed in the school of the soldier.
The fire will be commenced by the right file of the company; the next file will take aim at the instant the first brings down pieces to reload, and so on to the left; but this progression will only be observed in the first discharge, after which each man will reload and fire without regulating himself by others, conforming himself to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier.

The fire by rank.

227. The instructor wishing the fire by rank to be executed, will command:

1. Fire by rank. 2. Company. 3. READY. 4. Rear rank - AIM. 5. FIRE. 6. LOAD.

The fifth and sixth commands will be executed as is prescribed in the school of the soldier.
When the instructor sees one or two pieces in the rear rank at a ready, he will command:

1. Front rank. 2. AIM. 3. FIRE. 4. LOAD.

The firing will be continued thus by alternate ranks, until the signal is given to cease firing.
228. The instructor will sometimes cause aim to be taken to the right and left, conforming to what is prescribed for the oblique fire.
The instructor will cause the firing to cease, whether by company, by file, or by rank, by sounding the signal to cease firing; at which signal the men will cease to fire. If they have fired, they will load their pieces and bring them to a shoulder; if at the position of ready, they will half-cock and shoulder arms. If in the position of aim, they will bring down their pieces, half-cock, and shoulder arms.
229. The signal to cease firing will be always followed by a bugle note, or tap of the drum; at which sound, the captain and covering sergeant will promptly resume their places in line, and will rectify, if necessary, the alignment of the ranks.
The fire by file being that which is most frequently used against an enemy, it is highly important that it be rendered perfectly familiar to the troops. The instructor will, therefore, give it almost exclusive preference, and labor to cause the men to aim with care, and always, if possible, at some particular object. As it is of the utmost importance that the men should aim with precision in battle, this principle will be rigidly enforced in the exercises for purposes of instruction.

To fire by the rear rank.

230. The instructor will cause the several fires to be executed to the rear, that is, by the rear rank. To effect this, he will command:

1. Face by the rear rank. 2. Company. 3. About - FACE.

At the first command, the captain will step out and place himself near to, and facing the right file of his company; the covering sergeant and file-closers will pass quickly through the captain's interval, and place themselves faced to the rear, the covering sergeant a pace behind the captain, and the file-closers two paces from the front rank opposite to their places in line, each passing behind the covering sergeant.
At the third command, which will be given at the instant the last file-closer shall have passed through the interval, the company will face about; the captain will place himself in his interval in the rear rank, now become the front, and the covering sergeant will cover him in the front rank, now become the rear.
The company having faced by the rear rank, the instructor will cause it to execute the fire by company, both direct and oblique, the fire by file, and the fire by rank, by the commands and means prescribed. The captain, covering sergeant, and the men will conform themselves, in like manner, to what is prescribed.
The fire by file will commence on the left of the company, now become the right. In the fire by rank the firing will commence with the front rank, now become the rear.
To resume the proper front, the instructor will command:

1. Face by the front rank. 2. Company. 3. About - FACE.

At the first command, the captain, covering sergeant, and file-closers will conform to what is prescribed above.
At the third command, the company having faced about, the captain and covering sergeant will resume their places in line.
In this lesson, the instructor will impress on the men the importance of aiming always at some particular object, and of holding the piece as prescribed in the school of the soldier.
The instructor will recommend to the captain to make a short pause between the commands aim and fire, to give the men time to aim with accuracy.

To advance in line of battle.

231. The company being in line of battle, and correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish to exercise it in marching by the front, he will assure himself that the shoulders of the captain and covering sergeant are perfectly in the direction of their respective ranks, and that the sergeant accurately covers the captain; the instructor will then place himself twenty-five or thirty paces in front of them, face to the rear, and place himself exactly on the prolongation of the line passing between their heels.
The instructor, being aligned on the directing file, will command:

1. Company, forward.

At this, a sergeant, previously designated, will move six paces in advance of the captain: the instructor, from the position prescribed, will correctly align this sergeant on the prolongation of the directing file.
This advanced sergeant, who is to be charged with the direction, will, the moment his position is assured, take two points on the ground in the straight line which would pass between his own and the heels of the instructor.
These dispositions being made, the instructor will step aside, and command:

2. MARCH.

At this, the company will step off with life. The directing sergeant will observe, with the greatest precision, the length and cadence of the step, marching on the two points he has chosen; he will take in succession, and always a little before arriving at the point nearest to him, new points in advance, exactly in the same line with the first two, and at the distance of some fifteen or twenty paces from each other. The captain will march steadily in the trace of the directing sergeant, keeping always six paces from him; the men will each maintain the head direct to the front, feel lightly the elbow of his neighbor on the side of direction, and conform himself to the principles prescribed, school of the soldier, for the march by the front.
The man next to the captain will take special care not to pass him; to this end, he will keep the line of his shoulders a little in rear but in the same direction with those of the captain.
The file-closers will march at the habitual distance of two paces behind the rear rank.
If the men lose the step, the instructor will command:

To the - STEP.

At this command, the men will glance towards the directing sergeant, retake the step from him, and again direct their eyes to the front.
The instructor will cause the captain and covering sergeant to be posted sometimes on the right, and sometimes on the left of the company.
The directing sergeant, in advance, having the greatest influence on the march of the company, he will be selected for the precision of his step, his habit of maintaining his shoulders in a square with a given line of direction, and of prolonging that line without variation.

To halt the company, marching in line of battle, and to align it.

The instructor, wishing to halt the company, will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT.

At the second command, the company will halt; the directing sergeant will remain in advance, unless ordered to return to the line of file-closers. The company being at a halt, the instructor may advance the first three or four files on the side of direction, and align the company on that basis, or he may confine himself to causing the alignment to be rectified. In this last case, he will command: Captain, rectify the alignment. The captain will direct the covering sergeant to attend to the rear rank, when each, glancing his eyes along his rank, will promptly rectify it, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier.

Oblique march in line of battle.

232. The company being in the direct march, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march obliquely, he will command:

1. Right (or left) oblique. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the company will take the oblique step. The men will accurately observe the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier. The rear rank men will preserve their distances, and march in rear of the man next on the right (or left) of their habitual file leaders.
When the instructor wishes the direct march to be resumed. he will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the company will resume the direct march. The instructor will move briskly twenty paces in front of the captain, and facing the company, will place himself exactly in the prolongation of the captain and covering sergeant; and then, by a sign, will move the directing sergeant on the same line if he be not already on it; the latter will immediately take two points on the ground between himself and the instructor, and as he advances, will take new points of direction.
In the oblique march, the men not having the touch of elbows, the guide will always be on the side towards which the oblique is made, without any indication to that effect being given; and when the direct march is resumed, the guide will be, equally without indication, on the side where it was previous to the oblique.

To mark time, to march in double quick time, and the back step.

233. The company being in the direct march and in quick time, the instructor, to cause it to mark time, will command:

1. Mark time. 2. MARCH.

To resume the march, he will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH.

To cause the march in double quick time, the instructor will command:

1. Double quick. 2. MARCH.

The command march will be pronounced at the instant either foot is coming to the ground.
To resume quick time, the instructor will command:

1. Quick time. 2. MARCH.

The command march will be pronounced at the instant either foot is coming to the ground.
The company being at a halt, the instructor may cause it to march a the back step; to this effect, he will command:

1. Company backward. 2. MARCH.

The back step will be executed according to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier, but the use of it being rare, the instructor will not cause more than fifteen or twenty steps to be taken succession, and to that extent but seldom.
The instructor ought not to exercise the company in marching in double quick time till the men are well established in the length and swiftness of the pace in quick time; he will then endeavor to render the march of 165 steps in the minute equally easy and familiar, and also cause them to observe the same erectness of body and composure of mind, as if marching in quick time.

To march in retreat.

234. The company being halted and correctly aligned, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march in retreat, he will command:

1. Company. 2. About - FACE.

The company having faced to the rear, the instructor will place himself in front of the directing file.
The instructor, being correctly established on the prolongation of the directing file, will command:

3. Company, forward.

At this, the directing sergeant will conform himself to what is prescribed No. 231, with this difference - he will place himself six paces in front of the line of file-closers, now leading.
The covering sergeant will step into the line of file-closers, opposite to his interval, and the captain will place himself in the rear rank, now become the front.
This disposition being promptly made, the instructor will command:

4. MARCH.

At this, the directing sergeant, the captain, and the men will conform themselves to what is prescribed No. 231.
The instructor will cause to be executed, marching in retreat, all that is prescribed for marching in advance; the commands and the means of execution will be the same.
The instructor having halted the company, will, when he may wish, cause it to face to the front. The captain, the covering sergeant, and the directing sergeant, will resume their habitual places in line, the moment they shall have faced about.
235. The company being in march by the front rank, if the instructor should wish it to march in retreat, he will cause the right about to be executed while marching, and to this effect will command:

1. Company. 2. Right about. 3. MARCH.

At the third command, the company will promptly face about, and recommence the march by the rear rank.
The directing sergeant will face about with the company, and will move rapidly six paces in front of the file-closers, and upon the prolongation of the guide. The instructor will place him in the proper direction by the means prescribed. The captain, the covering sergeant, and the men, will conform to the principles prescribed for the march in retreat.
When the instructor wishes the company to march by the front rank, he will give the same commands, and will regulate the direction of the march by the same means.
236. The instructor will cause all the above marches, except the backward march, to be executed in the double quick time; the latter will be executed only in quick time. He will give the same commands, observing to add double quick before the command march.
When the pieces are carried on the right shoulder, in quick time, the distance between the ranks will be sixteen inches. Whenever, therefore, the instructor brings the company from a shoulder to this position, the rear rank must shorten a little the first steps in order to gain the prescribed distance, and will lengthen the steps, on the contrary, in order to close up when the pieces are again brought to a shoulder. In marching in double quick time, the distance between the ranks will be twenty-six inches, and the pieces will be carried habitually on the right shoulder.
Whenever a company is halted, the men will bring their pieces at once to a shoulder at the command halt. The rear rank will close to its proper distance. These rules are General.

To march by the flank.

237. The company being in line of battle, and at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march by the right flank, he will command:

1. Company, right - FACE. 2. Forward. 3. MARCH.

(Fig. 45.) At the first command, the company will face to the right, the covering sergeant will place himself at the head of the front rank, the captain having stepped out for the purpose, so far as to find himself by the side of the sergeant, and on his left; the two ranks will form to the right at the word, the rear rank will step off one pace to the right, then the even numbers of both ranks will step up the right of the odd, as directed in the school of the soldier; so that when the movement is completed, the files will be formed of four men aligned, and elbow to elbow. The intervals will be preserved.
The file closers will also move by side step to the right, so that when the ranks are formed, they will be two paces from the rearmost rank.
At the command march, the company will move off briskly in quick time; the covering sergeant at the head of the front rank, and the captain on his left, will march straight forward. The men of each file will march abreast of their respective front rank men, heads direct to the front; the file-closers will march opposite their places in line of battle.
The instructor will cause the march by the left flank to be executed by the same commands, substituting left for right; the rear rank steps one pace to the left, then the odd files of both ranks take their places to the left of the even numbered.
At the instant the company faces to the left, the left guide will place himself at the head of the front rank; the captain will pass rapidly to the left, and place himself by the right side of this guide; the covering sergeant will replace the captain in the front rank, the moment the latter quits it to go to the left.
The instructor will sometimes exercise the company in facing without doubling, for this purpose he will command:

1. Company, in two ranks, right - 2. FACE.

The double quick, however, will never be executed without the ranks being doubled.

To change direction by file.

238. The company being faced by the flank, and either in march, or at a halt, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to wheel by file, he will command:

1. By file, left, (or right.) 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 46.) At the command march, the first file will wheel; if to the side of the front rank man, the latter will take care not to turn at once, but to describe a short arc of a circle, shortening a little the first five or six steps in order to give time to the fourth man of this file to conform himself to the movement. If the wheel be to the side of the rear rank, the front rank man will wheel in the step it twenty-eight inches, and the fourth man will conform himself to the movement by describing a short arc of a circle as has been explained. Each file will come to wheel on the same ground where that which preceded it wheeled.
The instructor will see that the wheel be executed according to these principles, in order that the distance between the files may always be preserved, and that there be no check or hindrance at the wheeling point.

To halt the company marching by the flank, and to face it to the front.

239. To effect these objects, the instructor will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT.

The second and third commands will be executed as prescribed :n the school of the soldier. As soon as the files have undoubled the rear rank will close to its proper distance. The captain and covering sergeant, as well as the left guide, if the march be by the left flank, will return to their habitual places in line at the instant the company faces to the front.
The instructor may then align the company by one of the means prescribed.

The company being in march by the flank, to form it on the right (or left) by file into line of battle.

240. If the company be marching by the right flank, the instructor will command:

1. On the right, by file into line. 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 47.) At the command march, the rear rank men doubled will mark time; the captain and the covering sergeant will turn to the right, march straight forward, and be halted by the instructor when they shall have passed at least six paces beyond the rank of file-closers; the captain will place himself correctly on the line of battle, and will direct the alignment as the men of the front rank successively arrive; the covering sergeant will place himself behind the captain at the distance of the rear rank; the two men on the right of the front rank doubled, will continue to march, and passing beyond the covering sergeant and the captain, will turn to the right; after turning, they will continue to march elbow to elbow, and direct themselves towards the line of battle, but when they shall arrive at two paces from this line, the even number will shorten the step so that the odd number may precede him on the line, the odd number placing himself by the side and on the left of the captain; the even number will afterwards oblique to the left, and place himself on the left of the odd number; the next two men of the front rank doubled, will pass in the same manner behind the two first, turn then to the right, and place themselves, according to the means just explained, to the left, and by the side of, the two men already established on the line; the remaining files of this rank will follow in succession, and be formed to the left in the same manner. The rear rank
doubled will execute the movement in the manner already explained for the front rank, taking care not to commence the movement until four men of the front rank are established on the line of battle; the rear rank men, as they arrive on the line, will cover accurately their file leaders.
If the company be marching by the left flank, the instructor will cause it to form by file on the left into line of battle, according to the same principles and by the same commands, substituting the indication left for right. In this case, the odd numbers will shorten the step, so that the even numbers may precede them on the line. The captain, placed on the left of the front rank, and the left guide, will return to their places in line of battle, by order of the instructor, after the company shall be formed and aligned.
To enable the men the better to comprehend the mechanism of this movement, the instructor will at first cause it to be executed separately by each rank doubled, and afterwards by the two ranks united and doubled.

The company being in march by the flank, to form it by company, or by platoon, into line, and to cause it to face to the right and left in marching.

241. The company being in march by the right flank, the instructor will order the captain to form it into line; the captain will immediately command:

1. By company into line. 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 48.) At the command march, the covering sergeant will continue to march straight forward; the men will advance the right shoulder, take the double quick step, and move into line by the shortest route, taking care to undouble the files, and to come on the line one after the other.
As the front rank men successively arrive in line with the covering sergeant, they will take from him the step, and then turn their eyes the front.
The men of the rear rank will conform to the movements of their respective file leaders, but without endeavoring to arrive in line at the same time with the latter.
At the instant the movement begins, the captain will face to his company in order to follow up the execution; and, as soon as the company is formed, he will command, guide left, place himself two paces before the centre, face to the front, and take the step of the company.
At the command guide left, the second sergeant will promptly place himself in the front rank, on the left, to serve as guide, and the covering sergeant who is on the opposite flank will remain there.
When the company marches by the left flank, this movement will be executed by the same commands, and according to the same principles; the company being formed, the captain will command guide right, and place himself in front of his company as above; the covering sergeant who is on the right of the front rank will serve as guide, and the second sergeant placed on the left flank will remain there.
Thus, supposing the company to constitute a part of a column by company, right or left in front, the covering sergeant and the second sergeant of each company will always be placed on the right and left, respectively, of the front rank; they will be denominated right guide and left guide, and the one or the other charged with the direction.
The company being in march by the flank, if it be the wish of the instructor to cause it to form platoons, he will give an order to that effect to the captain, who will command:

1. By platoon, into line. 2. MARCH.

The movement will be executed by each platoon according to the above principles. The captain will place himself before the centre of the first platoon, and the first lieutenant before the centre of the second, passing through the opening made in the centre of the company, if the march be by the right flank, and around the left of his platoon, if the march be by the left : in this last case,
the captain will also pass around the left of the second platoon in order to place himself in front of the first. Both the captain and lieutenant, without waiting for each other, will command guide left (or right)at the instant their respective platoons are formed.
At the command guide left (or right), the guide of each platoon will pass rapidly to the indicated flank of the platoon, if not already there.
The right guide of the company will always serve as the guide of the right or left of the first platoon, and the left guide of the company will serve, in like manner, as the guide of the second platoon.
Thus in a column, by platoon, there will be but one guide to each platoon; he will always be placed on its left flank, if the right be in front, and on the right flank, if the left be in front.
In these movements, the file-closers will follow the platoons to which they are attached.
The instructor may cause the company, marching by the flank to form by company, or by platoon, into line, by his own direct commands, using those prescribed for the captain.
The instructor will exercise the company in passing, without halt from the march by the front, to the march by the flank, and reciprocally. In either ease, he will employ the commands prescribed in the school of the soldier, substituting company for squad. The company will face to the right or left, in marching, and the captain, the guides, and file-closers will conform themselves to what is prescribed for each in the march by the flank, or in the march by the front of a company supposed to be a subdivision of a column.
If, after facing to the right or left, in marching, the company find itself faced by the rear rank, the captain will place himself two paces behind the centre of the front rank, now in the rear, the guides will pass to the rear rank, now leading and the file-closers
will march in front of this rank.
The instructor, in order to avoid fatiguing the men, and to prevent them from being negligent in the position of shoulder arms, will sometimes order support arms in marching by the flank, and arms on the right shoulder, when marching in line.

To break into column by platoon, either at a halt or in march.

242. The company being at a halt, in line of battle, the instructor, wishing to break it into column, by platoon to the right, will command:

1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 49.) At the first command, the chiefs of platoons will rapidly place themselves two paces before the centres of their respective platoons, the lieutenant passing around the left of the company. They need not occupy themselves with dressing, one upon the other. The covering sergeant will replace the captain in the front rank.
At the command march, the right front rank man of each platoon face to the right, the covering sergeant standing fast the chief of each platoon will move quickly by the shortest line, a little beyond the point at which the marching flank will rest when the wheel shall be completed, face to the late rear, and place himself so that the line which he forms with the man on right (who had faced), shall be perpendicular to that occupied by the company in line of battle; each platoon will wheel according to the principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot, and when the man who conducts the marching flank shall approach near to the perpendicular, its chief will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

At the command halt, which will be given at the instant the man who conducts the marching flank shall have arrived at three paces from the perpendicular, the platoon will halt; the covering sergeant will move to the point where the left of the first platoon is to rest, passing by the front rank; the second sergeant will place himself in like manner, in respect to the second platoon. Each will take care to leave between himself and the man on the right of his platoon, a space equal to its front; the captain and first lieutenant will look to this, and each take care to align the sergeant between himself and the man of the platoon who had faced to the right.
The guide of each platoon, being thus established on the perpendicular, each chief will place himself two paces outside of his guide, and facing towards him, will command:

3. Left - DRESS.

The alignment being ended, each chief of platoon will command, FRONT, and place himself two paces before its centre.
The file-closers will conform themselves to the movement of their respective platoons, preserving always the distance of two paces from the rear rank.
The company will break by platoon to the left, according to the same principles. The instructor will command:

1. By platoon, left wheel. 2. MARCH.

The first command will be executed in the same manner as breaking by platoon to the right.
At the command march, the left front rank man of each platoon will face to the left, and the platoons will wheel to the left, according to the principles prescribed for the wheel on a fixed pivot; the chiefs of platoon will conform to the principles indicated.
At the command halt, given by the chief of each platoon, the covering sergeant on the right of the front rank of the first platoon and the second sergeant near the left of the second platoon, will each move to the points where the right of his platoon is to rest. The chief of each platoon should be careful to align the sergeant between himself and the man of the platoon who had faced to the left, and will then command:

Right - DRESS.

The platoons being aligned, each chief of platoon will command FRONT, and place himself opposite its centre.
243. The instructor wishing to break the company by platoon to the right, and to move the column forward after the wheel is completed, will caution the company to that effect, and command:

1. By platoon, right wheel. 2. MARCH.

At the first command, the chiefs of platoon will move rapidly in front of their respective platoons, conforming to what has been prescribed, and will remain in this position during the continuance the wheel. The covering sergeant will replace the chief of the first platoon in the front rank.
At the command march, the platoons will wheel to the right, conforming to the principles herein prescribed; the man on the pivot will not face to the right, but will mark time, conforming himself the movement of the marching flank; and when the man who is the left of this flank shall arrive near the perpendicular, the instructor will command:

3. Forward. 4. MARCH. 5. Guide left.

At the fourth command, which will be given at the instant the wheel is completed, the platoons will move straight to the front, all the men taking the step of twenty-eight inches. The covering sergeant and the second sergeant will move rapidly to the left of their respective platoons, the former passing before the front rank. The leading guide will immediately take points on the ground in the direction which may be indicated to him by the instructor.
At the fifth command, the men will take the touch of elbows lightly to the left.
If the guide of the second platoon should lose his distance, or the line of direction, he will conform to the principles herein prescribed.
If the company be marching in line to the front, the instructor will cause it to break by platoon to the right by the same commands. At the command march, the platoons will wheel in the manner already explained; the man on the pivot will take care to mark time in his place, without advancing or receding; the instructor, the chiefs of platoon, and the guides, will conform to what has been prescribed.
The company may be broken by platoons to the left, according to same principles, and by inverse means, the instructor giving the commands prescribed, substituting left for right, and reciprocally.

To march in column.

244. The company having broken by platoon, right (or left) in front, the instructor, wishing to cause the column to march, will throw himself twenty-five or thirty paces in front, face to the guides, place himself correctly, on their direction, and caution the leading guide to take points on the ground.
The instructor being thus placed, the guide of the leading platoon will take two points on the ground in the straight line passing between his own and the heels of the instructor.
These dispositions being made, the instructor will step aside, and command:

1. Column forward. 2. Guide left (or right). 3. MARCH.

At the command march, promptly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, they, as well as the guides, will lead off, by a decided step, their respective platoons, in order that the whole may move smartly, and at the same moment.
The men will each feel lightly the elbow of his neighbor toward the guide, and conform himself, in marching, to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier. The man next to the guide, in each platoon, will take care never to pass him, and also to march always about six inches to the right (or left) from him, in order not to push him out of the direction.
The leading guide will observe, with the greatest precision, the length and cadence of the step, and maintain the direction of his march by the means prescribed.
The following guide will march exactly in the trace of the leading one, preserving between the latter and himself a distance precisely equal to the front of his platoon, and marching in the same step with the leading guide.

To change direction.

The changes of direction of a column while marching, will be executed according to the principles prescribed for wheeling on the march. Whenever, therefore, a column is to change direction, the instructor will change the guide, if not already there, to the flank opposite the side to which the change is to be made.
245. The column being in march right in front, if it be the wish of the instructor to change direction to the right, he will give the order to the chief of the first platoon, and immediately go himself, or send a marker to the point at which the change of direction is to be made; the instructor, or marker, will place himself on the direction of the guides, so as to present the breast to that flank of the column.
The leading guide will direct his march on that person, so that, in passing, his left arm may just graze his breast. When the leading guide shall have approached near to the marker, the chief of the platoon will command:

1. Right wheel. 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 50.) The first command will be given when the platoon is at the distance of four paces from the marker.
At the command march, which will be pronounced at the instant the guide shall have arrived opposite the marker, the platoon will wheel to the right, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier.
The wheel being finished, the chief of each platoon will command:

3. Forward. 4. MARCH.

These commands will be pronounced and executed as is prescribed in the school of the soldier. The guide of the first platoon will take points on the ground in the new direction, in order the better to regulate the march.
The second platoon will continue to march straight forward till up with the marker, when it will wheel to the right, and re-take the direct march by the same commands and the same means which governed the first platoon.
The column being in march right in front, if the instructor should wish to change direction to the left, he will command, guide right. At this command, the two guides will move rapidly to the right of their respective platoons, each passing in front of his subdivision; the men will take the touch of elbows to the right; the instructor will afterwards conform to what is prescribed.
The change of direction to the left will then be executed according to the same principles as the change of direction to the right, but by inverse means.
When the change of direction is completed, the instructor will command, guide left.
The changes of direction in a column, left in front will be executed according to the same principles.
In changes of direction in double quick time, the platoons will wheel according to the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier.
In order to prepare the men for those formations in line, which can be executed only by turning to the right or the left, the instructor will sometimes cause the column to change direction to the side of the guide. In this case, the chief of the leading platoon will command: Left(or right) turn, instead of left(or right)wheel. The subdivisions will each turn, in succession, conforming to what is prescribed in the school of the soldier. The leading guide, as soon as he has turned, will take points on the ground, the better to regulate the direction of the march.

To halt the column.

The column being in march, when the instructor shall wish to halt it, he will command:

1. Column. 2 HALT.

At the second command, promptly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, the column will halt; the guides also will stand fast, although they may have lost both distance and direction.
If the command halt be not repeated with the greatest vivacity, and executed at the same instant, distances will be lost.
If a guide, having lost his distance, seek to recover it after that command, he will only throw his fault on the following guide, who, if he have marched well, will no longer be at his proper distance; and if the latter regain what he has thus lost, the movement will be propagated to the rear of the column.

Being in column by platoon, to form to the right or left into line of battle, either at a halt or on the march.

246. The instructor having halted the column, right in front, and wishing to form it into line of battle, will place himself at platoon distance in front of the leading guide, face to him, and rectify, if necessary, the position of the guide beyond; which being executed, he will command:

Left - DRESS.

At this command, which will not be repeated by the chiefs of platoon, each of them will place himself briskly two paces outside of his guide, and direct the alignment of the platoon perpendicularly to the direction of the column.
Each chief having aligned his platoon, will command FRONT, and return quickly to his place in column.
This disposition being made, the instructor will command:

1. Left into line, wheel. 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 51.) At the command march, briskly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, the front rank man on the left of each platoon will face to the left, and place his breast lightly against the arm of the guide by his side, who stands fast; the platoons will wheel to the left on the principle of wheels from a halt, and in conformity to what is prescribed. Each chief will turn to his platoon to observe its movement, and when the marching flank has approached near the line of battle, he will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

The command halt will be given when the marching flank of the platoon is three paces from the line of battle.
The chief of the second platoon having halted it, will return to his place as a file-closer, passing around the left of his subdivision.
The captain having halted the first platoon, will move rapidly to the point at which the right of the company will rest in line of battle, and command:

Right - DRESS.

At this command, the two platoons will dress up on the alignment; the front rank man on the right of the leading platoon, who finds himself opposite the instructor established on the direction of the guides, will place his breast lightly against the left arm of this officer. The captain will direct the alignment from the right on the man on the opposite flank of the company.
The company being aligned, the captain will command:

FRONT.

The instructor seeing the company in line of battle, will command:

Guides - POSTS.

At this command, the covering sergeant will cover the captain, and the left guide will return to his place as a file-closer.
If the column be left in front, and the instructor should wish to form it to the right into line of battle, he will place himself at platoon distance in front of the leading guide, face to him, and rectify, if necessary, the position of the guide beyond; which being executed, he will command:

1. Right into line, wheel. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the front rank man on the right of each platoon will face to the right and place his breast lightly against the left arm of the guide by his side, who stands fast; each platoon will wheel to the right, and will be halted by its chief, when the marching flank has approached near the line of battle; for this purpose, the chief of each platoon will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

The command halt will be given when the marching flank of the platoon is three paces from the line of battle. The chief of the second platoon having halted his platoon, will resume his place in the rank of file-closers.
The captain having halted the first platoon, will move briskly to the point at which the left of the company will rest, and command:

Left - DRESS.

At this command, the two platoons will dress up on the alignment; the man on the left of the second platoon, opposite the instructor, will place his breast lightly against the right arm of this officer, and the captain will direct the alignment from the left on the man on the opposite flank of the company.
The company being aligned, the captain will command:

FRONT.

The instructor will afterwards command:

Guides - POSTS.

At this command, the captain will move to the right of his company, the covering sergeant will cover him, and the left guide will return to his place as a file-closer.
247. If the column be marching right in front and the instructor should wish to form it into line without halting the column, he will give the command:

1. Left into line, wheel. 2. MARCH.

and will himself move rapidly to platoon distance in front of the leading guide.
At the command march, briskly repeated by the chiefs of platoons, the front rank man on the left of each platoon will face to the left, and place his breast lightly against the arm of the guide by his side, who stands fast; the platoons will wheel to the left on the principle of wheels from a halt. Each chief will turn to his platoon to observe its movement, and conform to what is prescribed for wheeling into line from a halt.
If the column be in march left in front, this formation will be made according to the same principles, and by inverse means.
248. If the column be marching right in front, and the instructor should wish to form it into line without halting the column, and to march the company in line to the front, he will command:

1. By platoons left wheel. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, briskly repeated by the chiefs of platoon, the left guides will halt; the man next to the left guide in each platoon will mark time: the platoons will wheel to the left, conforming to the principles of the wheel on a fixed pivot. When the right of the platoons shall arrive near the line of battle, the instructor will command:

3. Forward. 4. MARCH. 5. Guide right (or left.)

At the fourth command, given at the instant the wheel is completed, all the men of the company will move off together with the step of twenty-eight inches; the captain, the chief of the second platoon, the covering sergeant, and the left guide, will take their positions as in line of battle.
At the fifth command, which will be given immediately after the fourth, the captain and covering sergeant, if not already there, will move briskly to the side on which the guide is designated. The non-commissioned officer charged with the direction will move rapidly in front of the guide, and will be assured in his line of march by the instructor. That non-commissioned officer will immediately take points on the ground. The men will take the touch of elbows to the side of the guide, conforming themselves to the principles of the march in line.
The same principles are applicable to a column left in front.

A company marching to the front to break it into platoons, and to re-form the company.

249. The company marching in the cadenced step, and supposed to make part of a column, right in front, in which case the guide is left, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to break by platoon, he will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. Break into platoons,

and immediately place himself before the centre of the first platoon.
At the command break into platoons, the first lieutenant will pass quickly around the left to the centre of his platoon, and give the caution: Mark time.
The captain will then command:

2. March.

(Fig. 52). The first platoon will continue to march straight forward; the covering sergeant will move rapidly to the left flank of this platoon (passing by the front rank) as soon as the flank shall be disengaged.
At the command march, given by the captain, the second platoon will begin to mark time; its chief will immediately add:

1. Right oblique. 2. MARCH.

The last command will he given so that this platoon may commence obliquing the instant the rear rank of the first platoon shall have passed. The men will shorten the step in obliquing, so that when the command forward march is given, the platoon may have its exact distance.
The guide of the second platoon being near the direction of the guide of the first, the chief of the second will command Forward, and add MARCH, the instant that the guide of his platoon shall cover the guide of the first.
In a column, left in front the company will break into platoons by inverse means applying to the first platoon all that has been prescribed for the second, and reciprocally.
In this case, the left guide of the company will shift to the right flank of the second platoon, and the covering sergeant will remain on the right of the first.
250. The column, by platoon, being in march, right in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to form company, he will give the order to the captain, who will command:

Form company.

Having given this command, the captain will immediately add:

1. First platoon. 2. Right oblique.

The chief of the second platoon will caution it to continue to march straight forward.
The captain will then command:

3. MARCH.

At this command, repeated by the chief of the second, the first platoon will oblique to the right, in order to unmask the second; the covering sergeant, on the left of the first platoon, will return to the right of the company, passing by the front rank.
When the first platoon shall have nearly unmasked the second, the captain will command:

1. Mark time,

and at the instant the unmasking shall be complete, he will add:

2. MARCH.

The first platoon will then cease to oblique, and mark time.
In the mean time the second platoon will have continued to march straight forward, and when it shall be nearly up with the first, the captain will command Forward, and at the instant the two platoons shall unite, add MARCH; the first platoon will then cease to mark time.
In a column, left in front, the same movement will be executed by inverse means, the chief of the second platoon giving the command Forward,and the captain adding the command MARCH, when the platoons are united.
The guide of the second platoon, on its right, will pass to its left flank the moment the platoon begins to oblique; the guide of the first, on its right, remaining on that flank of the platoon.
The instructor will also sometimes cause the company to break and re-form, by platoon, by his own direct commands. In this case, he will give the general commands prescribed for the captain above:

1. Break into platoons. 2. MARCH.

and,

1. Form company. 2. MARCH.

If, in breaking the company into platoons, the subdivision that breaks off should mark time too long, it might, in a column of many subdivisions, arrest the march of the following one, which would cause a lengthening of the column, and a loss of distances.

Being in column, to break files to the rear, and to cause them to re-enter into line.

251. The company being in march, and supposed to constitute a subdivision of a column, right (or left) in front, when the instructor shall wish to cause files to break off he will give the order to the captain, who will immediately turn to his company, and command:

1. Two files from left (or right) to rear. 2. MARCH.

(Fig. 53.) At the command march, the two files on the left (or right) of the company will mark time, the others will continue to march straight forward; the two rear rank men of these files will, as soon as the rear rank of the company shall clear them, move to the right by advancing the outer shoulder; the odd number will place himself behind the third file from that flank, the even number behind the fourth, passing for this purpose behind the odd number; the two front rank men will, in like manner, move to the right when the rear rank of the company shall clear them, the odd number will place himself behind the first file, the even number behind the second file, passing for this purpose behind the odd number. If the files are broken from the right, the men will move to the left advancing the outer shoulder, the even number of the rear rank will place himself behind the third file, the odd number of the same rank behind the fourth; the even number of the front rank behind the first file, the odd number of the same rank behind the second the odd numbers for this purpose passing behind the even numbers. The men will be careful not to lose their distances, and to keep aligned.
If the instructor should still wish to break two files from the same side, he will give the order to the captain, who will proceed as above directed.
At the command march, given by the captain, the files already broken, advancing a little the outer shoulder, will gain the space of two files to the right, if the files are broken from the left, and to the left, if the files are broken from the right, shortening, at the same time, the step, in order to make room between themselves and the rear rank of the company for the files last ordered to the rear; the latter will break by the same commands and in the same manner as the first. The men who double should increase the length of the step in order to prevent distances from being lost.
The instructor may thus diminish the front of a company by breaking off successive groups of two files, but the new files must always be broken from the same side.
The instructor, wishing to cause files broken off to return into line, will give the order to the captain, who will immediately command:

1. Two files into line. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the first two files of those marching by the flank will return briskly into line, and the others will gain the space of two files by advancing the inner shoulder towards the flank to which they belong.
The captain will turn to his company, to watch the observance of the principles which have just been prescribed.
The instructor having caused groups of two files to break one after another, and to return again into line, will afterwards cause two or three groups to break together, and for this purpose, will command: Four or six files from left (or right) to rear; MARCH. The files designated will mark time; each rank will advance a little the outer shoulder as soon as the rear rank of the company shall clear it, will oblique at once, and each group will place itself behind the four neighboring files, and in the same manner, as if the movement had been executed group by group, taking care that the distances are preserved.
The instructor will next order the captain to cause two or three groups to be brought into line at once, who turning to the company, will command:

Four or six flies into line - MARCH.

At the command march, the files designated will advance the inner shoulder, move up and form on the flank of the company by the shortest lines.
As often as files shall break off to the rear, the guide on that flank will gradually close on the nearest front rank man remaining in line, and he will also open out to make room for files ordered into line.
The files which march in the rear are disposed in the following order: the left files as if the company was marching by the right flank, and the right files as if the company was marching by the left flank. Consequently, whenever there is on the right or left of a subdivision, a file which does not belong to a group, it will be broken singly.
It is necessary to the preservation of distances in column that the men should be habituated in the schools of detail to execute the movements of this article with precision.
If new files broken off do not step well to the left or right in obliquing; if, when files are ordered into line, they do not move up with promptitude and precision, in either case the following files will be arrested in their march, and thereby cause the column to be lengthened out.
The instructor will place himself on the flank from which the files are broken, to assure himself of the exact observance of the principles.
Files will only be broken off from the side of direction, in order that the whole company may easily pass from the front to the flank march.

To march the column in route, and to execute the movements incident thereto.

252. The swiftness of the route step will be 110 steps in a minute; this swiftness will be habitually maintained in column in route, when the roads and ground may permit.
The company being at a halt, and supposed to constitute a subdivision of a column, when the instructor shall wish to cause it to march in the route step, he will command:

1. Column, forward. 2. Guide, left (or right). 3. Route step. 4. MARCH.

At the command march, repeated by the captain, the two ranks will step off together; the rear rank will take, in marching, by shortening a few steps, a distance of one pace (twenty-eight inches) from the rank preceding, which distance will be computed from the breasts of the men in the rear rank, to the knapsacks of the men in the front rank. The men, without further command, will immediately carry their arms at will, as indicated in the school of the soldier. They will no longer be required to march in the cadenced pace, or with the same foot, or to remain silent. The files will march at ease; but care will be taken to prevent the ranks from intermixing, the front rank from getting in advance of the guide, and the rear rank from opening to too great a distance.
The company marching in the route step, the instructor will cause it to change direction, which will be executed without formal commands, on a simple caution from the captain; the rear rank will come up to change direction in the same manner as the front rank. Each rank will conform itself although in the route step, to the principles which have been prescribed for the change in closed ranks, with this difference only; that the pivot man, instead of taking steps of nine, will take steps of fourteen inches, in order to clear the wheeling point
The company marching in the route step, to cause it to pass to the cadenced step, the instructor will first order pieces to be brought to the shoulder, and then command:

1. Quick time. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the men will resume the cadenced step, and will close so as to leave a distance of sixteen inches between each rank.
253. The company marching in the cadenced pace, the instructor, to cause it to take the route step will command:

1. Route step. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the front rank will continue the step of twenty-eight inches, the rear rank will take, by gradually shortening the step, the distance of twenty-eight inches from the front rank: the men will carry their arms at will.
The instructor will exercise the company in increasing and diminishing front, by platoon, which will be executed by the same commands, and the same means, as if the company were marching in the cadenced step. When the company breaks into platoons, the chief of each will move to the flank of his platoon, and will take the place of the guide, who will step back into the rear rank.
254. The company being in column, by platoon, and marching in the route step, the instructor can cause the front to be diminished and increased, by section, if the platoons have a front of twelve files or more.
The movements of diminishing and increasing front, by section, will be executed according to the principles indicated for the same movement by platoon. The right sections of platoons will be commanded by the captain and first lieutenant, respectively; the left sections, by the two next subalterns in rank, or, in their absence, by sergeants.
The instructor wishing to diminish by section, will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. Break into sections. 2. MARCH.

As soon as the platoons shall be broken, each chief of section will place himself on its directing flank in the front rank, the guides who will he thus displaced, will fall back into the rear rank: the file-closers will close up to within one pace of this rank.
Platoons will be broken into sections only in the column in route, the movement will never he executed in the manoeuvres, whatever may be the front of the company.
When the instructor shall wish to re-form platoons, he will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. Form platoons. 2. MARCH.

At the first command, each chief of section will place himself before its centre, and the guides will pass into the front rank. At the command march, the movement will be executed as has been prescribed for forming company. The moment the platoons are formed, the chiefs of the left sections will return to their places as file-closers.
The instructor will also cause to be executed the diminishing and increasing front by files, as prescribed in the preceding article, and in the same manner, as if marching in the cadenced step. When the company is broken into sections, the subdivisions must not be reduced to a front of less than six files, not counting the chief of the section.
The company being broken by platoon, or by section, the instructor will cause it, marching in the route step, to march by the flank in the same direction, by the commands and the means indicated. The moment the subdivisions shall face to the right (or left), the first file of each will wheel to the left (or right), in marching, to prolong the direction, and to unite with the rear file of the subdivision immediately preceding. The file-closers will take their habitual places in the march by the flank, before the union of the subdivisions.
255. If the company be marching by the right flank, and the instructor should wish to undouble the files, which might sometimes be found necessary, he will inform the captain, who, after causing the cadenced step to be resumed, and arms to be shouldered or supported, will command:

1. In two ranks, undouble files. 2. MARCH.

At the second command, the odd numbers will continue to march straight forward, the even numbers will shorten the step, and obliquing to the left will place themselves promptly behind the odd numbers; the rear rank will gain a step to the left so as to re-take the touch of elbows on the side of the front rank.
If the company be marching by the left flank, it will be the even numbers who will continue to march forward, and the odd numbers who will undouble.
If the instructor should wish to double the files, he will give the order to the captain, who will command:

1. In four ranks, double files. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the files will double in the manner as explained, when the company faces by the right or the left flank. The instructor will afterwards cause the route step to be resumed.
The various movements prescribed in this lesson may be executed in double quick time. The men will be brought, by degrees, to pass over at this gait about 1100 yards in seven minutes.
When the company marching in the route step shall halt, the rear rank will close up at the command halt, and the whole will shoulder arms.
Marching in the route step, the men will be permitted to carry their pieces in the manner they shall find most convenient, paying attention only to holding the muzzles up, so as to avoid accidents.

Countermarch.

256. The company being at a halt, and supposed to constitute a part of a column, right in front, when the instructor shall wish it cause it to countermarch, he will command:

l. Countermarch. 2. Company, right - FACE. 3. By file left. 4. MARCH.

(Fig. 54.) At the second command, the company will face to the right, the two guides to the right about; the captain will go to the right of his company and cause two files to break to the rear, and then place himself by the side of the front rank man, to conduct him.
At the command march, both guides will stand fast; the company will step off smartly; the first file, conducted by the captain, will wheel around the right guide, and direct its march along the front rank so as to arrive behind, and two paces from the left guide; each file will come in succession to wheel on the same ground around the right guide; the leading file having arrived at a point opposite to the left guide, the captain will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT. 4. Right - DRESS.

The first command will be given at four paces from the point where the leading file is to rest.
At the second command, the company will halt.
At the third, it will face to the front.
At the fourth, the company will dress by the right; the captain will step two paces outside of the left guide, now on the right, and direct the alignment, so that the front rank may be enclosed between the two guides: the company being aligned, he will command FRONT, and place himself before the centre of the company as if in column; the guides, passing along the front rank, will shift to their proper places, on the right and left of that rank.
In a column, by platoon, the countermarch will be executed by the same commands, and according to the same principles; the guide of each platoon will face about, and its chief will place himself by the side of the file on the right, to conduct it.
In a column, left in front, the countermarch will be executed by inverse commands and means, but according to the same principles. Thus, the movement will be made by the right flank of subdivisions if the right be in front, and by the left flank, if the left be in front; in both cases the subdivisions will wheel by file to the side of the front rank.

Being in column by platoon, to form on the right (or left) into line of battle.

257. The column by platoon, right in front, being in march, the instructor wishing to form it on the right into line of battle, will command:

1. On the right into line. 2. Guide right.

(Fig. 55.) At the second command, the guide of each platoon will shift quickly to its right flank, and the men will touch elbows to the right; the column will continue to march straight forward.
The instructor having given the second command, will move briskly to the point at which the right of the company ought to rest in line, and place himself facing the point of direction to the left which he will choose.
The line of battle ought to be so chosen that the guide of each platoon, after having turned to the right, may have at least ten paces to take before arriving upon that line.
The head of the column being nearly opposite to the instructor, the chief of the first platoon will command; 1. Right turn; and when exactly opposite to that point, he will add:

2. MARCH.

At the command march, the first platoon will turn to the right, in conformity with the principles prescribed in the school of the soldier. Its guide will so direct his march as to bring the front rank man next on his left, opposite to the instructor the chief of the platoon will march before its centre; and when its guide shall be near the line of battle, he will command:

1. Platoon. 2. HALT.

At the command halt, which will be given at the instant the right of the platoon shall arrive at the distance of three paces from the line of battle, the platoon will halt; the files not yet in line will come up promptly. The guide will throw himself on the line of battle, opposite to one of the three left files of his platoon; he will face to the instructor, who will align him on the point of direction to the left. The chief of platoon having, at the same time, gone to the point where the right of the company is to rest, will, a soon as he sees all the files of the platoon in line, command:

Right - DRESS.

At this, the first platoon will align itself; the front rank man, who finds himself opposite to the guide, will rest his breast lightly against the right arm of this guide, and the chief of the platoon, from the right, will direct the alignment on this man.
The second platoon will continue to march straight forward, until its guide shall arrive opposite to the left file of the first; it will then turn to the right at the command of its chief; and march towards the line of battle, its guide directing himself on the left file of the first platoon.
The guide having arrived at the distance of three paces from the line of battle, this platoon will be halted, as prescribed for the first; at the instant it halts, its guide will spring on the line of battle, opposite to one of the three left files of his platoon, and will be assured in his position by the instructor.
The chief of the second platoon, seeing all its files in line, arid its guide established on the direction, will command:

Right - DRESS.

Having given this command, he will return to his place as a file-closer, passing around the left; the second platoon will dress up on the alignment of the first, and, when established, the captain will command:

FRONT.

The movement ended, the instructor will command:

Guides - POSTS.

At this command, the two guides will return to their places in line of battle.
A column by platoon, left in front, will form on the left into line of battle, according to the same principles, and, by inverse means, applying to the second platoon what is prescribed for the first, and reciprocally. The chief of the second platoon having aligned it, from the point of appui (the left), will retire to his place as a file-closer. The captain having halted the first platoon three paces behind the line of battle, will go to the same point to align the platoon, and then command: FRONT. At the command, guides - posts, given by the instructor, the captain will shift to his proper flank, and the guides take their places in the line of battle.

Formation of a company from two ranks into four, and reciprocally, at a halt, and in march.

258. The company being formed in two ranks, at a halt, and supposed to form part of a column right in front when the instructor shall wish to form it into four ranks, he will command:

1. In four ranks, form company. 2. Company left - FACE. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).


At the second command, the left guide will remain faced to the front, the company will face to the left: the rear rank will gain the distance of one pace from the front rank by a side step to the left and rear, and the men will form into four ranks as prescribed in the school of the soldier.
At the command march, the first file of four men will reface to the front without undoubling. All the other files of four will step if, and closing successively to about five inches of the preceding file, will halt, and immediately face to the front, the men remaining doubled.
The file-closers will take their new places in line of battle, at two paces in rear of the fourth rank.
The captain will superintend the movement.
259. The company being in four ranks, when the instructor shall wish to form it into two ranks, he will command:

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. Company right - FACE. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the second command the left guide will stand fast, the company will face to the right.
At the command march, the right guide will step off and march in the prolongation of the front rank. The leading file of four men will step off at the same time, the other files standing fast; the second file will step off when there shall be between it and the first space sufficient to form it into two ranks. The following files will execute successively what has been prescribed for the second. As soon as the last file shall have its distance, the instructor will command:

1. Company. 2. HALT. 3. FRONT.

At the command front, the company will face to the front, and the files will undouble.
260. The company being formed in two ranks, and marching to the front, when the instructor shall wish to form it into four ranks, he will command:

1. In four ranks, form company. 2. By the left, double files. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).


At the command march, the left guide and the left file of the company will continue to march straight to the front: the company will make a half face to the left, the odd numbers placing themselves behind the even numbers. The even numbers of the rear rank will shorten their steps a little, to permit the odd numbers of the front rank to get between them and the even numbers of that rank. The files thus formed of fours, except the left file, will continue to march obliquely, lengthening their steps slightly, so as to keep constantly abreast of the guide; each file will close successively on the file next on its left, and when at the proper distance from that file, will face to the front by a half face to the right, and take the touch of elbows to the left.
261. The company being in march to the front in four rank, when the instructor shall wish to form it into two ranks, he will command:

1. In two ranks, form company. 2. By the right, undouble files. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the command march, the left guide and the left file of the company will continue to march straight to the front; the company will make a half face to the right and march obliquely, lengthening the step a little, in order to keep, as near as possible, abreast of the guide. As soon as the second file from the left shall have gained to the right the interval necessary for the left file to form into two ranks, the second file will face to the front by a half face to the left and march straight forward; the left file will immediately form into two ranks, and take the touch of elbows to the left. Each file will execute successively what has just been prescribed for the file next to the left, and each will form into two ranks when the file next on its right has obliqued the required distance and faced to the front.
If the company be supposed to make part of a column, left in front, these different movements will be executed according to the same principles and by inverse means, substituting the indication left for right.

INSTRUCTION FOR SKIRMISHERS.

General principles and division of the instruction.

262. The movements of skirmishers should be subjected to such as will give to the commander the means of moving them in any direction with the greatest promptitude.
It is not expected that these movements should be executed with the same precision as in closed ranks, nor is it desirable, as such exactness would materially interfere with their prompt execution.
When skirmishers are thrown out to clear the way for, and to protect the advance of, the main corps, their movements should be so regulated by this corps, as to keep it constantly covered.
Every body of skirmishers should have a reserve, the strength and composition of which will vary according to circumstances.
If the body thrown out be within sustaining distance of the main corps, a very small reserve will be sufficient for each company, whose duty it shall be to fill vacant places, furnish the line with cartridges, relieve the fatigued, and serve as a rallying point for the skirmishers.
If the main corps be at a considerable distance, besides the company reserves, another reserve will be required, composed of entire companies, which will be employed to sustain and reinforce such parts of the line as may be warmly attacked; this reserve should be strong enough to relieve at least half the companies deployed as skirmishers.
The movements of skirmishers will be executed in quick, or double quick time. The run will be resorted to only in cases of
urgent necessity.
Skirmishers will be permitted to carry their pieces in the manner convenient to them.
The movements will be habitually indicated by the sounds of the bugle.
The officers, and, if necessary, the non-commissioned officers, will repeat, and cause the commands to be executed, as soon as they are given; but to avoid mistakes, when the signals are employed, they will wait until the last bugle note is sounded before commencing the movement.

Deployments.

263. A company may be deployed as skirmishers in two ways: forward, and by the flank.
The deployment forward will be adopted when the company is behind the line on which it is to be established as skirmishers: will be deployed by the flank, when it finds itself already on that line.
Whenever a company is to be deployed as skirmishers, it will be divided into two platoons, and each platoon will be subdivided into two sections; the comrades in battle, forming groups of four men, will be careful to know and to sustain each other. The captain will assure himself that the files in the centre of each platoon and section are designated.
The interval between skirmishers depends on the extent of ground to be covered; but in general, it is not proper that the groups of four men should be removed more than forty paces from each other. The habitual distance between men of the same group in open grounds will be five paces; in no case will they lose sight of each other.

To deploy forward.

264. A company being at a halt or in march, when the captain shall wish to deploy it forward on the left file of the first platoon, holding the second platoon in reserve, he will command:

1. First platoon - as skirmishers. 2. On the left file - take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

(Fig. 56.) At the first command, the second and third lieutenants will place themselves rapidly two paces behind the centres of the right and left sections of the first platoon; the fifth sergeant will move one pace in front of the centre of the first platoon, and will place himself between the two sections in the front rank as soon as the movement begins; the fourth sergeant will place himself on the left of the front of the same platoon, as soon as he can pass. The captain will indicate to the sergeant the point on which he wishes him to direct his march. The first lieutenant, placing himself before the centre of the second platoon, will command:

Second platoon backward - MARCH.

At this command, the second platoon will step three paces to the rear so as to unmask the flank of the first platoon. It will then be halted by its chief and the second sergeant will place himself on the left, and the third sergeant on the right flank of the platoon.
At the command march, the left group of four men, conducted by the fourth sergeant, will direct itself on the point indicated; all the other groups of fours throwing forward briskly the left shoulder, will move diagonally to the front in double quick time, so as to gain to the right the space of twenty paces, which shall be the distance between each group and that immediately on its left. When the second group from the left shall arrive on a line with, and twenty paces from the first, it will march straight to the front, conforming to the gait and direction of the first, keeping constantly on the same alignment and at twenty paces from it. The third group, and all the others, will conform to what has just been prescribed for the second; they will arrive successively on the line. The right guilt will arrive with the last group.
The left guide having reached the point where the left of the line should rest, the captain will command the skirmishers to halt; the men composing each group of fours will then immediately deploy at five paces from each other, and to the right and left of the front rank men of the even file in each group, the rear rank men placing themselves on the left of their file leaders. If any groups be not in line at the command halt, they will move up rapidly, conforming to what has just been prescribed.
If, during the deployment, the line should be fired upon by the enemy, the captain may cause the groups of fours to deploy, as they gain their proper distances.
The line being formed, the non-commissioned officers on the right, left and centre of the platoon, will place themselves ten paces in rear of the line, and opposite the positions they respectively occupied. The chiefs of sections will promptly rectify any irregularities, and then place themselves twenty-five or thirty paces in rear of the centre of their sections, each having with him four men taken from the reserve, and also a bugler, who will repeat, if necessary, the signals sounded by the captain.
Skirmishers should be particularly instructed to take advantage of any cover which the ground may offer, and should lie flat on the ground whenever such a movement is necessary to protect them from the fire of the enemy. Regularity in the alignment should yield to this important advantage.
When the movement begins, the first lieutenant will face the second platoon about, and march it promptly, and by the shortest line, to about 150 paces in rear of the centre of the line. He will hold it always at this distance, unless ordered to the contrary.
The reserve will conform itself to all the movements of the line. This rule is general.
Light troops will carry their bayonets habitually in the scabbard, this rule applies equally to the skirmishers and the reserve; whenever bayonets are required to be fixed, a particular signal will be given. The captain will give a general superintendence to the deployment, and then promptly place himself about eighty paces in rear of the centre of the line. He will have with him a bugler and four men taken from the reserve.
The deployment may be made on the right or the centre of the platoon by same commands, substituting the indication right or centre, for that of left file.
The deployment on the right or the centre will be made according to the principles prescribed above; in this latter case, the centre of the platoon will be marked by the right group of fours in the second section; the fifth sergeant will place himself on the right of this group, and serve as the guide of the platoon during the deployment.
In whatever manner the deployment be made, on the right, left, or centre, the men in each group of fours will always deploy at five paces from each other, and upon the front rank man of the even numbered file. The deployments will habitually be made at twenty paces interval; but if a greater interval be required, it will be indicated in the command.
If a company be thrown out as skirmishers, so near the main body as to render a reserve unnecessary, the entire company will be extended in the same manner, and according to the same principles, as for the deployment of a platoon. In this case, the third lieutenant will command the fourth section, and a non-commissioned officer designated for that purpose, the second section; the fifth sergeant will act as centre guide; the file-closers will place themselves ten paces in rear of the line, and opposite their places in line of battle. The first and second lieutenant will each have a bugler near him.

To deploy by the flank.

265. The company being at a halt, when the captain shall wish to deploy it by the flank, holding the first platoon in reserve, he will command:

1. Second platoon - as skirmishers. 2. By the right flank - take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

(Fig. 57.) At the first command, the first and third lieutenants will place themselves, respectively, two paces behind the centres of the first and second sections of the second platoon; the fifth sergeant will place himself one pace in front of the centre of the second platoon; the third sergeant, as soon as he can pass, will place himself on the right of the front rank of the same platoon. The captain will indicate to him the point on which he wishes him to direct his march. The chief of the first platoon will execute what has been prescribed for the chief of the second platoon, No. 264. The fourth sergeant will place himself on the left flank of the reserve, the first sergeant will remain on the right flank.
At the second command, the first and third lieutenants will place themselves two paces behind the left group of their respective sections.
At the command march, the second platoon will face to the right and commence the movement; the left group of fours will stand fast, but will deploy as soon as there is room on its right, conforming to what has been prescribed, No. 264; the third sergeant will place himself on the left of the right group, to conduct it; the second group will halt at twenty paces from the one on its left, the third group at twenty paces from the second, and so on to the right. As the groups halt, they will face to the enemy, and deploy as has been explained for the left group.
The chiefs of sections will pay particular attention to the successive deployments of the groups, keeping near the group about to halt, so as to rectify any errors which may be committed. When the deployment is completed, they will place themselves thirty paces in rear of the centre of their sections, as has been heretofore prescribed. The non-commissioned officers will also place themselves as previously indicated.
As soon as the movement commences, the chief of the first platoon, causing it to face about, will move it as indicated No. 264.
The deployment may be made by the left flank according to the same principles, substituting left flank for right flank.
266. If the captain should wish to deploy the company upon the centre of one of the platoons, be will command:

1. Second platoon - as skirmishers. 2. By the right and left flanks - take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the first command, the officers and non-commissioned officers will conform to what has been prescribed No. 265.
At the second command, the first lieutenant will place himself behind the left group of the right section of the second platoon, the third lieutenant behind the right group of the left section the same platoon.
At the command march, the right section will face to the right, the left section will face to the left, the group on the right of this latter section will stand fast. The two sections will move off in opposite directions; the third sergeant will place himself on the left of the right file to conduct it, the second sergeant on the right the left file. The two groups nearest that which stands fast, will each halt at twenty paces from this group, and each of the other groups will halt at twenty paces from the group which is in rear of it. Each group will deploy as heretofore prescribed No. 264.
The first and third lieutenants will direct the movement, holding themselves always abreast of the group which is about to halt.
The captain can cause the deployment to be made on any named group whatsoever; in this case the fifth sergeant will place himself before the group indicated, and the deployment will be made according to the principles heretofore prescribed.
The entire company may be also deployed, according to the same principles.

To extend intervals.

267. This movement, which is employed to extend a line of skirmishers, will be executed according to the principles prescribed for deployments.
If it be supposed that the line of skirmishers is at a halt, and that the captain wishes to extend it to the left, he will command:

1. By the left flank (so many paces) extend intervals. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

(Fig. 58.) At the command march, the group on the right will stand fast, all the other groups will face to the left, and each group will extend its interval to the prescribed distance by the means indicated No. 265.
The men of the same group will continue to preserve between each other the distance of five paces, unless the nature of the ground should render it necessary that they should close nearer, in order to keep in sight of each other. The intervals refer to the spaces between the groups, and not to the distances between the men in each group. The intervals will be taken from the right or left man of the neighboring group.
If the line of skirmishers be marching to the front, and the captain should wish to extend it to the right, he will command:

1. On the left group (so many paces) extend intervals. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

The left group, conducted by the guide, will continue to march on the point of direction; the other groups throwing forward the left shoulder, and taking the double quick step, will open their intervals to the prescribed distance.
Intervals may be extended on the centre of this line, according to the same principles.
If, in extending intervals, it be intended that one company or platoon should occupy a line which had been previously occupied by two, the men of the company or platoon which is to retire, will fall successively to the rear as they are relieved by the extension of the intervals.

To close intervals.

268. This movement, like that of opening intervals, will be executed according to the principles prescribed for the deployments.
If the line of skirmishers be halted, and the captain should wish to close intervals to the left, he will command:

1. By the left flank (so many paces) close intervals. 2. MARCH ( or double quick - MARCH).

(Fig. 59.) At the command march, the left group will stand fast, the other groups will face to the left and close to the prescribed distance, each group facing to the enemy as it attains its proper distance.
If the line be marching to the front, the captain will command:

1. On the left group (so many paces) close intervals. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

The left group, conducted by the guide, will continue to move on in the direction previously indicated; the other groups, advancing the right shoulder, will close to the left, until the intervals are reduced to the prescribed distance.
Intervals may be closed on the right, or on the centre, according to the same principles.
When intervals are to be closed up, in order to reinforce a line of skirmishers, so as to cause two companies to cover the ground which had been previously occupied by one, the new company will deploy so as to finish its movement at twenty paces in rear of the line it is to occupy, and the men will successively move upon that line, as they shall be unmasked by the men of the old company. The reserves of the two companies will unite behind the centre of the line.

To relieve a company deployed as skirmishers.

269. When a company of skirmishers is to be relieved, the captain will be advised of the intention, which he will immediately communicate to the first and second lieutenants.
The new company will execute its deployment forward, so as to finish the movement at about twenty paces in rear of the line.
Arrived at this distance, the men of the new company, by command of their captain, will advance rapidly a few paces beyond the old line and halt; the new line being established, the old company will assemble on its reserve, taking care not to get into groups of fours until they are beyond the fire of the enemy.
If the skirmishers to be relieved are marching in retreat, the company thrown out to relieve them will deploy by the flank, as prescribed No. 265 and following. The old skirmishers will continue to retire with order, and having passed the new line, they will form upon the reserve.

To advance.

To advance in line, and to retreat in line.

270. When a platoon or a company deployed as skirmishers is marching by the front, the guide will be habitually in the centre. No particular indication to this effect need be given in the commands, but if on the contrary it be intended that the directing guide should be on the right, or left, the command guide right, or guide left, will be given immediately after that of forward.
The captain, wishing the line of skirmishers to advance, will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

This command will be repeated with the greatest rapidity by the chiefs of sections, and in case of need, by the sergeants. This rule is general, whether the skirmishers march by the front or by the flank.
At the first command, three sergeants will move briskly on the line, the first on the right, the second on the left, and the third in the centre.
At the command march, the line will move to the front, the guide charged with the direction will move on the point indicated to him, the skirmishers will hold themselves aligned on this guide, and preserve their intervals towards him.
The chiefs of sections will march immediately behind their sections, so as to direct their movements.
The captain will give a general superintendence to the movement.
When he shall wish to halt the skirmishers, he will command:

HALT.

At this command, briskly repeated, the line will halt. The chiefs of sections will promptly rectify any irregularity in the alignment and intervals, and after taking every possible advantage which the ground may offer for protecting the men, they, with the three sergeants in the line, will retire to their proper places in rear.
271. The captain, wishing to march the skirmishers in retreat, will command:

1. In retreat. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the first command, the three sergeants will move on the line as prescribed No. 270.
At the command march, the skirmishers will face about individually, and march to the rear, conforming to the principles prescribed No. 270.
The officers and sergeants will use every exertion to preserve order.
To halt the skirmishers, marching in retreat, the captain will command:

HALT.

At this command, the skirmishers will halt, and immediately face to the front.
The chiefs of sections and the three guides will each conform himself to what is prescribed No. 270.

To change direction.

272. If the commander of a line of skirmishers shall wish to cause it to change direction to the right, he will command:

1. Right wheel. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the command march, the right guide will mark time in his place; the left guide will move in a circle to the right, and that he may properly regulate his movements, will occasionally cast his eyes to the right, so as to observe the direction of the line, and the nature of the ground to be passed over. The centre guide will also march in a circle to the right, and in order to conform his movements to the general direction, will take care that his steps are only half the length of the steps of the guide on the left.
The skirmishers will regulate the length of their steps by their distance from the marching flank, being less as they approach the pivot, and greater as they are removed from it; they will often look to the marching flank, so as to preserve the direction and their intervals.
When the commander of the line shall wish to resume the direct march, he will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the line will cease to wheel, and the skirmishers will move direct to the front; the centre guide will march on the point which will be indicated to him.
If the captain should wish to halt the line, in place of moving it to the front, he will command:

HALT.

At this command, the line will halt.
A change of direction to the left will be made according to the same principles, and by inverse means.
A line of skirmishers marching in retreat will change direction by the same means, and by the same commands, as a line marching in advance; for example, if the captain should wish to refuse his left, now become the right, he will command:

1. Left wheel. 2. MARCH.

At the command halt, the skirmishers will face to the enemy.
But if; instead of halting the line, the captain should wish to continue to march it in retreat, he will, when he judges the line has wheeled sufficiently, command:

1. In retreat. 2. MARCH.

To march by the flank.

273. The captain, wishing the skirmishers to march by the right flank, will command:

1. By the right flank. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the first command, the three sergeants will place themselves on the line.
At the command march, the skirmishers will face to the right and move off; the right guide will place himself by the side of the leading man on the right to conduct him, and will march on the point indicated; each skirmisher will take care to follow exactly in the direction of the one immediately preceding him, and to preserve his distance.
The skirmishers may be marched by the left flank, according to the same principles, and by the same commands, substituting left for right; the left guide will place himself by the side of the leading man to conduct him.
If the skirmishers be marching by the flank, and the captain should wish to halt them, he will command:

HALT.

At this command, the skirmishers will halt and face to the enemy. The officers and sergeants will conform to what has been prescribed No. 270.
The reserve should execute all the movements of the line, and be held always about 150 paces from it, so as to be in position to second its operations.
When the chief of the reserve shall wish to march it in advance, he will command:

1. Platoon forward. 2. Guide left. 3. MARCH.

If he should wish to march it in retreat, he will command:

1. In retreat. 2. MARCH. 3. Guide right.

At the command halt, it will re-face to the enemy.
The men should be made to understand that the signals or commands, such as forward, mean that the skirmishers shall march on the enemy; in retreat, that they shall retire, and to the right or left flank, that the men must face to the right or left, whatever may be their position.
If the skirmishers be marching by the flank, and the captain should wish to change direction to the right (or left), he will command:

1. By file right (or left). 2. MARCH.

These movements will also be executed by the signals No. 262.

THE FIRINGS.

274. Skirmishers will fire either at a halt or marching.

To fire at a halt.

To cause this fire to be executed, the captain will command:

Commence - FIRING.

At this command, briskly repeated, the men of the front rank will commence firing; they will reload rapidly, and hold themselves in readiness to fire again. During this time the men of the rear rank will come to a ready, and as soon as their respective file leaders have loaded, they will also fire and reload. The men of each file will thus continue the firing, conforming to this principle, that the one or the other shall always have his piece loaded.
Light troops should be always calm, so as to aim with accuracy; they should, moreover, endeavor to estimate correctly the distances between themselves and the enemy to be hit, and thus be enabled to deliver their fire with the greater certainty of success.
Skirmishers will not remain in the same place whilst reloading, unless protected by accidents in the ground.

To fire marching.

275. This fire will be executed by the same commands as the fire at a halt.
At the command commence firing, if the line be advancing, the front rank man of every file will halt, fire, and reload before throwing himself forward. The rear rank man of the same file will continue to march, and after passing ten or twelve paces beyond his front rank man will halt, come to a ready, select his object, and fire then his front rank man has loaded; the fire will thus continue to be executed by each file; the skirmishers will keep united, and endeavor, as much as possible, to preserve the general direction of the alignment.
If the line be marching in retreat at the command commence firing, the front rank man of every file will halt, face to the enemy, fire, and then reload whilst moving to the rear; the rear rank man of the same file will continue to march, and halt ten or twelve paces beyond his front rank man, face about, come to a ready, and fire, when his front rank man has passed him in retreat and loaded; after which, he will move to the rear and reload; the front rank man in his turn after marching briskly to the rear, will halt at ten or twelve paces from the rear rank, face to the enemy; load his piece and fire, conforming to what has just been prescribed; the firing will thus be continued.
If the company be marching by the right flank, at the command, commence firing, the front rank man of every file will face to the enemy, step one pace forward, halt, and fire; the rear rank man will continue to move forward. As soon as the front rank man has fired, he will place himself briskly behind his rear rank man and reload whilst marching. When he has loaded, the rear rank man will in his turn, step one pace forward, halt, and fire, and returning to the ranks, will place himself behind his front rank man; the latter, in his turn, will act in the same manner, observing the same principles. At the command, cease firing, the men of the rear rank will retake their original positions, if not already there.
If the company be marching by the left flank, the fire will be executed according to the same principles, but in this case it will be the rear rank men who will be first.
The following rules will be observed in the cases to which they apply:
If the line be firing at a halt, or whilst marching by the flank at the command, Forward - MARCH, it will be the men whose pieces are loaded, without regard to the particular rank to which they belong, who will move to the front. Those men whose pieces have been discharged, will remain in their places to load them before moving forward, and the firing will be continued agreeably to the principles prescribed above.
If the line be firing either at a halt, advancing, or whilst marching by the flank, at the command, In retreat - MARCH, the men whose pieces are loaded will remain faced to the enemy, and will fire in this position; the men whose pieces are discharged will retreat loading them, and the fire will be continued agreeably to principles prescribed for the fire in marching in retreat.
If the line of skirmishers be firing either at a halt, advancing, or in retreat, at the command, By the right (or left) flank - MARCH, the men whose pieces are loaded will step one pace out of the general alignment, face to the enemy, and fire in this position; the men whose pieces are unloaded will face to the right (or left) and march in the direction indicated. The men who stepped out of the ranks will place themselves, immediately after firing, upon the general direction, and in rear of their front or rear rank men, as the case may be. The fire will be continued according to the principles prescribed for firing when marching by a flank.
Skirmishers will be habituated to load their pieces whilst marching; but they will be enjoined to halt always an instant, when in the act of charging cartridge, and priming.
They should be practised to fire and load kneeling, lying down, and sitting, and much liberty should be allowed in these exercises, in order that they may be executed in the manner found to he most convenient. Skirmishers should he cautioned not to forget that, in whatever position they may load, it is important that the piece should be placed upright before ramming, in order that the entire charge of powder may reach the bottom of the bore.
In commencing the fire, the men of the same rank should not all fire at once, and the men of the same file should be particular that one or the other of them be always loaded.
In retreating, the officer commanding the skirmishers should seize on every advantage which the ground may present, for arresting the enemy as long as possible.
At the signal to cease firing, the captain will see that the order is promptly obeyed; but the men who may not be loaded, will load. If the line be marching, it will continue the movement; but the man of each file who happens to be in front, will wait until the man in rear shall be abreast with him.
If a line of skirmishers be firing advancing, at the command halt, the line will re-form upon the skirmishers who are in front; when the line is retreating, upon the skirmishers who are in rear.
276. Officers should watch with the greatest possible vigilance over a line of skirmishers; in battle, they should neither carry a rifle or fowling piece. In all the firings, they, as well as the sergeants, should see that order and silence are preserved, and that the skirmishers do not wander imprudently; they should especially caution them to be calm and collected; not to fire until they distinctly perceive the objects at which they aim, and are sure that those objects are within proper range. Skirmishers should take advantage promptly, and with intelligence, of all shelter, and of a accidents of the ground, to conceal themselves from the view of the enemy, and to protect themselves from his fire. It may often happen that intervals are momentarily lost when several men near each other find a common shelter; but when they quit this position, they should immediately resume their intervals and their places in line, so that they may not, by crowding, needlessly expose themselves the fire of the enemy.

THE RALLY.

To form column.

277. A company deployed as skirmishers, is rallied in order oppose the enemy with better success; the rallies are made at a run, and with bayonets fixed; when ordered to rally, the skirmishers fix bayonets without command.
There are several ways of rallying, which the chief of the line will adopt according to circumstances.
If the line, marching or at a halt, be merely disturbed by scattered horsemen, it will not be necessary to fall back on the reserve, but the captain will cause bayonets to be fixed. If the horsemen should, however, advance to charge the skirmishers, the captain will command, rally by fours. The line will halt if marching, and the four men of each group will execute this rally in the following manner: the front rank man of the even numbered file will take the position of guard against cavalry; the rear rank man of the odd numbered file will also take the position of guard against cavalry, turning his back to him, his right foot thirteen inches from the right foot of the former, and parallel to it; the front rank man of the odd file, and the rear rank man of the even file, will also place themselves back to back, taking a like position, and between the two men already established, facing to the right and left; the right feet of the four men will be brought together, forming a squares and serving for mutual support. The four men in each group will come to a ready, fire as occasion may offer, and load without moving their feet. (Fig. 60.)

The captain and chiefs of sections will each cause the four men who constitute his guard to form square, the men separating so as to enable him and the bugler to place themselves in the centre. The three sergeants will each promptly place himself in the group nearest him in the line of skirmishers.
Whenever the captain shall judge these squares too weak, but should wish to hold his position by strengthening his line, he will command:

Rally by sections.

278. At this command, the chiefs of sections will move rapidly on the centre group of their respective sections, or on any other interior group whose position might offer a shelter, or other particular advantage; the skirmishers will collect rapidly at a run on this group, and without distinction of numbers. The men composing the group on which the formation is made, will immediately form square, as heretofore explained, and elevate their pieces, the bayonets uppermost, in order to indicate the point on which the rally is to be made. The other skirmishers, as they arrive, will occupy and fill the open angular spaces between these four men, and successively rally around this first nucleus, and in such manner as to form rapidly a company circle. The skirmishers will take as they arrive, the position of charge bayonet, the point of the bayonet more elevated, and will cock their pieces in this position. The movement concluded, the two exterior ranks will fire as occasion may offer, and load without moving the feet. (Fig. 61.)

The captain will move rapidly with his guard, wherever he may judge his presence most necessary.
The officers and sergeants will be particular to observe that the rally is made in silence, and with promptitude and order; that some pieces in each of their subdivisions be at all times loaded, and that the fire is directed on those points only where it will be most effective.
If the reserve should be threatened, it will form into a circle around its chief.
If the captain, or commander of a line of skirmishers formed of many platoons, should judge that the rally by section does not offer sufficient resistance, he will cause the rally by platoons to be executed, and for this purpose, will command:

Rally by platoons.

279. This movement will be executed according to the same principles, and by the same means, as the rally by sections. The chiefs of platoon will conform to what has been prescribed for the chiefs of section.
The captain wishing to rally the skirmishers on the reserve, will command:

Rally on the reserve.

280. At this command, the captain will move briskly on the reserve; the officer who commands it will take immediate steps to form square; for this purpose, he will cause the half sections on the flanks to be thrown perpendicularly to the rear; he will order the men to come to a ready.
The skirmishers of each section, taking the run, will form rapidly into groups, and upon that man of each group who is nearest the centre of the section. These groups will direct themselves diagonally towards each other, and in such manner as to form into sections with the greatest possible rapidity while moving to the rear; the officers and sergeants will see that this formation is made in proper order, and the chiefs will direct their sections upon the reserve, taking care to unmask it to the right and left. As the skirmishers arrive, they will continue and complete the formation of the square begun by the reserve, closing in rapidly upon the latter, without regard to their places in line; they will come to a ready without command, and fire upon the enemy; which will also be done by the reserve as soon as it is unmasked by the skirmishers. (Fig. 62.)

If a section should be closely pressed by cavalry while retreating its chief will command halt; at this command, the men will form rapidly into a compact circle around the officer, who will re-form his section and resume the march, the moment he can do so with safety.
The formation of the square in a prompt and efficient manner, requires coolness and activity on the part of both officers and sergeants.
The captain will also profit by every moment of respite which the enemy's cavalry may leave him; as soon as he can, he will endeavor to place himself beyond the reach of their charges, either by gaining a position where he may defend himself with advantage, or by returning to the corps to which he belongs. For this purpose, being in square, he will cause the company to break into column by platoons at half distance; to this effect, he will command:

1. Form column. 2. MARCH.

At the command march, each platoon will dress on its centre, and the platoon which was facing to the rear will face about without command. The guides will place themselves on the right and left of their respective platoons, those of the second platoon will place themselves at half distance from those of the first, counting from the rear rank. These dispositions being made, the captain can move the column in whatever direction he may judge proper.
If he wishes to march it in retreat, he will command:

l. In retreat. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH).

At the command march, the column will immediately face by the rear rank, and move off in the opposite direction. As soon as the column is in motion, the captain will command:

3. Guide right (or left).

He will indicate the direction to the leading guide; the guides will march at their proper distances, and the men will keep aligned.
If again threatened by cavalry, the captain will command:

1. Form square. 2. MARCH

At the command march, the column will halt; the first platoon will face about briskly, and the outer half sections of each platoon will be thrown perpendicularly to the rear, so as to form the second and third fronts of the square. The officers and sergeants will promptly rectify any irregularities which may be committed.
If he should wish to march the column in advance, the captain will command:

1. Form column. 2. MARCH.

Which will be executed as prescribed above.
The column being formed, the captain will command:

1. Forward. 2. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH). 3. Guide left (or right).

At the second command, the column will move forward, and at the third command, the men will take the touch of elbows to the side of the guide.
If the captain should wish the column to gain ground to the right or left, he will do so by rapid wheels to the side opposite the guide, and for this purpose, will change the guide whenever it may be necessary.
281. If a company be in column by platoon, at half distance, right in front, the captain can deploy the first platoon as skirmishers by the means already explained; but if it should be his wish to deploy the second platoon forward on the centre file, leaving the first platoon in reserve, he will command:

1. Second platoon - as skirmishers. 2. On the centre file take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick - MARCH.)

At the first command, the chief of the first platoon will caution his platoon to stand fast; the chiefs of sections of the second platoon will place themselves before the centre of their sections; the fifth sergeant will place himself one pace in front of the centre of the second platoon.
At the second command, the chief of the right section, second platoon, will command: Section right face; the chief of the left section: Section left face.
At the command march, these sections will move off briskly in opposite directions, and having unmasked the first platoon, the chiefs of sections will respectively command: By the left flank - MARCH, and By the right flank - MARCH; and as soon as these sections arrive on the alignment of the first platoon, they will command: As skirmishers - MARCH. The groups will then deploy according to prescribed principles, on the right group of the left section, which will be directed by the fifth sergeant on the point indicated.
If the captain should wish the deployment made by the flank, the second platoon will be moved to the front by the means above stated, and halted after passing some steps beyond the alignment of the first platoon; the deployment will then be made by the flank according to the principles prescribed.
When one or more platoons are deployed as skirmishers, and the captain should wish to rally them on the battalion, he will command:

Rally on the battalion.

282. At this command, the skirmishers and the reserve, no matter what position the company to which they belong may occupy in order of battle, will rapidly unmask the front of the battalion, directing themselves in a run towards its nearest flank, and then form in its rear.
As soon as the skirmishers have passed beyond the line of file-closers, the men will take the quick step, and the chief of each platoon or section will re-form his subdivision, and place it in column behind the wing on which it is rallied, and at ten paces from the rank of file-closers. These subdivisions will not be moved except by order of the commander of the battalion, who may, if he thinks proper, throw them into line of battle at the extremities of the line, or in the intervals between the battalions.
If many platoons should be united behind the same wing of s battalion, or behind any shelter whatsoever, they should be formed always into close column, or into column at half distance.
When the battalion, covered by a company of skirmishers, shall be formed into square, the platoons and sections of the covering company will be directed by their chiefs to the rear of the square which will be opened at the angles to receive the skirmishers, who will be then formed into close column by platoons in rear of the first front of the square.
If circumstances should prevent the angles of the square from being opened, the skirmishers will throw themselves at the feet of the front rank men, the right knee on the ground, the butt of the piece resting on the thigh, the bayonet in a threatening position. A part may also place themselves about the angles, where they render good service by defending the sectors without fire.
If the battalion on which the skirmishers are rallied be in column ready to form square, the skirmishers will be formed into close column by platoon, in rear of the centre of the third division, and at the command, Form square - MARCH, they will move forward and close on the buglers.
When skirmishers have been rallied by platoon or section behind the wings of a battalion, and it be wished to deploy them again to the front, they will be marched by the flank towards the intervals on the wings, and be then deployed so as to cover the front of the battalion.
When platoons or sections, placed in the interior of squares or columns, are to be deployed, they will be marched out by the flank and then thrown forward, as is prescribed, No. 281; as soon as shall have unmasked the column or square, they will be deployed, the one on the right, the other on the left file.

The assembly.

283. A company deployed as skirmishers will be assembled when there is no longer danger of its being disturbed; the assembly will be made habitually in quick time.
The captain wishing to assemble the skirmishers on the reserve, will command:

Assemble on the reserve.

At this command, the skirmishers will assemble by groups of fours; the front rank men will place themselves behind their rear rank men; and each group of fours will direct itself on the reserve, where each will take its proper place in the ranks. When the company is re-formed, it will rejoin the battalion to which it belongs.
It may be also proper to assemble the skirmishers on the center, or on the right or left of the line, either marching or at a halt.
If the captain should wish to assemble them on the centre while marching, he will command:

Assemble on the centre.

At this command, the centre guide will continue to march directly to the front on the point indicated; the front rank man of the directing file will follow the guide, and be covered by his rear rank man; the other two comrades of this group, and likewise those on their left will march diagonally, advancing the left shoulder and accelerating the gait, so as to re-form the groups while drawing nearer and nearer the directing file; the men of the right section will unite in the same manner into groups, and then upon the directing file, throwing forward the right shoulder. As they successively unite on the centre, the men will bring their pieces to the right shoulder.
To assemble on the right or left file will be executed according to the same principles.
The assembly of a line marching in retreat will also be executed according to the same principles, the front rank men marching behind their rear rank men.
To assemble the line of skirmishers at a halt, and on the line they occupy, the captain will give the same commands; the skirmishers will face to the right or left, according as they should march by the right or left flank, re-form the groups while marching, and to arrive on the file which served as the point of formation. As they successively arrive, the skirmishers will support arms.