Haversack & Contents
1861 - 1865
1-pound & 2-pound
In the military manner, the haversack was stenciled so that there would be no confusion either as to the unit or the individual to which the knapsack belonged. In the case of the Washington Artillery, the name of the soldier, his unit (Washington Artillery) and his company affiliation (5th Company) would be stenciled on the flap of his haversack, or directly beneath it. That information would constitute three lines of stenciling on the haversack.
The haversack was intended to carry rations and related items such as eating utensils, but as with many other military items, the haversack was often put to use carrying other items enjoyed by the soldier.
Commonly, a haversack might include, but not be limited to:
- Rations. Salt pork, hardtack, and coffee are authentic haversack "fillers", as well as any fruits or vegetables appropriate to the time and place.
- Tin Cup. A tin cup was often slung from the strap of the haversack, but could also be found inside a haversack.
- Tin Plate. A tin plate may be used as a serving dish or, in a pinch, a frying pan; and a canteen half may serve as your tin plate, just as was true on occasion for some during the war. If you choose your plate - or your haversack - so that the plate will fit into the haversack, the plate will give the haversack more form and rigidity, preventing or reducing the likelihood of items spilling out of your haversack.
- Utensils. Fork, knife, and spoon are vital necessities. A reproduction period pocketknife may serve double duty as pocket knife and eating utensil.
- Matches and Matchsafe. Carry your matches in a match-safe, which is usually a small tin box that will help keep your matches dry and uncrushed. : It is a good idea for each reenactor to carry one box of matches in a matchsafe (i.e. a small box that protects the box of matches from being crushed). Matches can also be carried in a jacket pocket. Reproduction matchsafes are generally not very correct but, with some careful shopping at an antique store or relic vendor, one can find a fairly inexpensive period matchsafe.
Collapsible Ink Pen
(courtesy of Sullivan Press)
Washington Artillery Patriotic Post Card
Double Edge Ink Eraser
American Bible Society
Union Temperance Songster
Temperance Hymnal - 1850
Union Playing Cards
Clay Pipe With Reed Stem
Pipe - Cypress Bowl With Reed Stem
Confederate Tobacco Pouches
Tin Tobacco Box
Tobacco Twist & Cigar
Cigar Tin With Cigars
Collapsible Drinking Cup
Men's Toilet Kit
Imperial Bay Rum
Tin Shaving Cup
Tin Shaving Mug
Swivel Top Mirror
An article well describes the use of the haversack. Our thanks to the folks at
and to the author for allowing us to offer the following information:
By Wayne Thompson
The proper name for the haversack is "forage bag", or "ration bag". For our purposes, the ration bag was "issue" equipment 1, and was listed in the inventory of every soldier in both armies. If lost, it was to be paid for and replaced by the soldier. That is not to say that every soldier always had a ration bag on him at all times, though. For many a soldier, a full stomach was a much better storage container than any satchel could ever be.
There were many styles of forage bags, and a list of each style would not be productive for our use here. Rather, we will identify the two broadest types and describe them here.
For the Yankee, the most common forage bag is the antebellum pattern "tarred" model. This was a canvas sack, roughly measuring 10" wide x 12" long x 2" deep, with a canvas strap to hang the bag from one shoulder to the opposite hip (actually slightly above the hip, as most soldiers wore their gear higher than most reenactors do today). There may have been an inner liner or plain canvas poke inside, designed to keep the food away from the tarred material (or vice-versa), but many wartime bags quickly lost this inner pouch, it being more practical as mending material, cleaning patches, potholders, and so forth. Additionally, the poke got plain nasty after awhile and so it would have been removed at least to be laundered.
Other patterns were purchased by the states for their antebellum militia troops and later for their troops in the field, and the occasional kind gesture from a loved one back home, but the tarred bag seems to be the standard for US troops.
For the Confederate soldier of 1861 - 1865, the most common pattern mimicked the US bag, without the tarring. It also appears to have been slightly smaller in size, more often presenting a square shape. Other styles were indeed present, and one can never discount the use by Confederate soldiers of the captured "Yankee bread bag". The use of cloth or burlap sacks tied to the uniform belt are acceptable alternatives to the manufactured haversack for a late war impression for some Confederate soldiers.
What, then, will a soldier do with his forage bag?
The primary purpose of the bag is to hold the soldier's meals until they are eaten. The bag is also intended to hold a soldier's mess kit; namely, a plate, skillet, knife, fork, and spoon. If available, a soldier might also carry a few coarse towels or scraps of fabric to use as potholders or washcloths, some lye soap (commonly available at most sutleries today), a nutmeg grater, and possibly a few precious condiments such as nutmeg, vinegar, salt, pepper, relish and the like.
Food should be placed inside pokes, which are bags - cloth bags, in our case (definition provided for those of you who are unfamiliar with the language of the South). Pokes were usually made of muslin or cotton sheeting, sewn together, with a piece of twine to tie the opening shut; sometimes done in a drawstring style. Poke sizes may vary, depending on the foods you need to carry. Vary the sizes for different food items. Clean, empty pokes can also be used as coffee bags, if you have a boiler handy.
Canteen halves may be used to replace the plate and skillet. Period tinware plates and skillets certainly saw use throughout the war, and a tin boiler of one or two quarts in capacity will find a friendly welcome in almost any camp. A mucket can serve both as a cup and boiler, if weight is a factor. The larger tin ware, however, can also serve to carry extra rations, such as potatoes or corn, and allow the soldier to distribute the weight of his rations about more equally.
There is some debate about whether the average Southron carried both a canteen and a tin cup. Some period sources indicate that many Confederate soldiers would dispense with one or the other when on campaign, expecting to replace the loss from "liberated" Federal inventory from the battlefield later on. This may well have been the case. General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson had a detail follow his army on the early marches, collecting all the discarded equipment left behind by footsore troops, only to reissue these same items to the troops later on, after exacting the cost of replacing said items from the soldier's meager pay. Not knowing how meticulous other commanders were, we do know that the practice of discarding gear was widespread, and other officers may have done something similar from time to time.
Some memoirs include references to soldiers who always did without a canteen, hoping to get a drink from an obliging comrade along the march. On the other hand, a cup fills up more quickly than a canteen from a well or spring, an important consideration if the column has not halted at the water source, and the soldier does not wish to be left behind while slaking his thirst. We recommend that the modern reenactor carry both a canteen and a cup.
A cup may best be suspended from the strap of the canteen or haversack by a length of twine or lace. The boiler is best slung under the knapsack, particularly if it is large. Some wartime manuals recommend making a pouch for the knife/fork/spoon, to hang from the belt, but it does not seem to have been a widespread practice 2. In all probability, it was only as common as carrying a large sheath knife, a practice stringently discouraged within the reenactment community.
The haversack - the forage bag - the ration bag is both a correct and essential piece of equipment for the modern hobbyist, and should reflect the needs and the impression of the reenactor. Though there are many choices available in terms of materials, construction, and style, it is a good idea to stay within the mainstream with issue gear, unless circumstances require a unique application.
The author waives all copyrights and fees for the use of this article, except for citing the article and author when using it in whole or in part.
1. Many soldiers did without their haversacks at one time or another, but it is still true that the forage bag was issued to practically each and every soldier in both armies. It is listed as part of the equipment for each soldier in the military regulations, and is an essential part of the soldiers' kit.
2. Cloth or leather pouches were used to hold "table furniture" - forks, knives, spoons - together inside the haversack, but the practice of hanging gear from the belt was not popular with the troops on either side. Carry your equipment on the march a time or two and the reason for its lack of popularity will be self-evident.